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What case studies demonstrate the benefits and/or damages of the use of ICTs and Open Data?

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What case studies demonstrate the benefits and/or damages of the use of ICTs and Open Data?
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What is the potential for open data in nutrition and agriculture? Does open data benefit and damage farmers, especially smallholder family farmers, women and the youth in developing countries? What case studies can demonstrate the benefits and/or damages of the use of ICTs and Open Data?

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Welcome to the 2nd week

Dear Participants,

Welcome to the second week of this e-Forum discussion on the ICTs and Open Data in Agriculture and Nutrition. We had an interesting 1st week with many participants addressing that week’s question.

For a flash summary, please read this article.

This week’s discussions seeks your comments on the potential of open data; benefits and possible damages to family farmers, women and the youth and if you can also give cases and examples that will be appreciated.

To post simply log in and reply to this thread - support in posting on forums

We wish you a wholesome discussion.

Thembani,On behalf of the e-forum moderators

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Week 1 Summary

Dear Moderator, it appears to me that the published Week 1 Summary does not do justice to all good ideas and pertinent suggestions contributed that ought to have been harvesred and proessed first into the Week Summary Report and ultimately into the e-Forum Discussion Outcome Document that includes Conclusions and Recommendations that does effective justice to the speific e-Forum Disussion. It is my hope that Week 2 Summary Report will be more robust and inlusive of all good ideas and pertinent suggestions contributed. 

I applaud your more construtive engagement approach to Week 2 discussions. However, apology to contribute is unnecessary in my view. For greater effectiveness Moderators on each e-Forum disussion need to actively contribute to posts setting out good ideas and pertinent suggestions and ask follow up questions that could enrich the Week's discussions. I do hope that more Moderators and Speakers will join you in this new approach. Well done.  

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Re: Week 1

Thank you for your feedback, 

Please note that the summaries are only to give a hit of whats happening to wet their appertite into commenting on the platform. The full summaries of the discussion are produced later with all the details, 

Regarding engagement in week 1, there was less intervention from us as the debate was more lively and interjecting would have way led the discussion into the moderators preferances. In week 2 we intervened as there were some cases mentioned in passing.

Thank you for the feedback and be sure that all the other moderators are reading this ( also note we had some moderators contributing so everyone had a role)

Regards,

Thembani Malapela, On behalf of Moderators

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Re: Week 1

Thank you for your feedback, 

Please note that the summaries are only to give a hit of whats happening to wet their appertite into commenting on the platform. The full summaries of the discussion are produced later with all the details, 

Regarding engagement in week 1, there was less intervention from us as the debate was more lively and interjecting would have way led the discussion into the moderators preferances. In week 2 we intervened as there were some cases mentioned in passing.

Thank you for the feedback and be sure that all the other moderators are reading this ( also note we had some moderators contributing so everyone had a role)

Regards,

Thembani Malapela, On behalf of Moderators

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Cases - How can we improve agriculture, food and nutrition

Dear All

GODAN together with the Open Data Institute published a discussion paper showcasing a series of 14 use cases showing how open data can be useful in different stages of agriculture, food production and consumption.

It does a good job of highlighting three specific ways open data can help solve practical problems in the agriculture and nutrition sectors:

1. Enabling more efficient and effective decision making

2. Fostering innovation that everyone can benefit from

3. Driving organisational and sector change through transparency

You can access the paper here: How can we improve agriculture, food and nutrition with open data?

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Dear Chipo,

Dear Chipo,

Thank you for bringing this up. I feel honored to have been among the authors of the specific publication, and indeed the Discussion Paper aims to provide some examples where the use of open data in agriculture and nutrition made an impact. There are different application presented, and of course there are many more that we could not include for various reasons (the total length of the publication being one of them). 

The use of ICT tools facilitated various aspects of the process, ranging from the production and collection/recording of the data, to their management, sharing and exploitation. I find a connection with previous week's topic here: The more adapted the ICT tools are to specific applications, the higher the impact is. THe applications are numerous and I will not focus on any specific one.

What I would like to contribute, as a general message, is that we have all the components out there, such as the open data, the applications and ICT tools, the developers, the SMEs that work on data-powered solutions and of course the expected end users. What we need is to provide the mean for connecting all these different parts and stakeholders so that we will manage to come up with meaningful outcomes for the  end users, providing added value to the open data and the efforts of those working with them. As a final result, ICTs and open data should be used for improving food production and addressing the nutritional needs of the constantly increasing global population.

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Open data In ICT

I think Chipo and Vprot have actually made reseanable points in their contributions moreso the document that Chipo shared there was very helpfull in regards to the open data.

But in as much as we are tryinng to resolve a problem here we shouldn't create another at the end of the day by exposing some data that must not be exposed, so i will say open data can be of great help to e-agriculture if an only if we know the exact problem we are trying to solve and the bases for which we intern to implement the open data in agriculture because if this things are not well difined then we may end up building a "bee nest inside our bedroom".

I thing more light on this has been said by the UK government in their official blog which can be access here especially the point which emphasis on evidence based decition making and the other which talks about the risk involved.

In a summary, it leads us to the point that data in agriculture can be made open but not all of these data can be made open so for e-agriculture, it will work well on  what application and/or software is best for this purpose which will help us better understand the openness of the data requiredand how it should be handled.

 

Regards

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More GODAN Case Studies on OpenData for Agriculture

Since the first joint publication with ODI highlighted those case studies we have published two compilation booklets which build on them. They are available to download here:

GODAN Success Stories Issue 1

http://www.godan.info/documents/godan-success-stories-issue-2

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I agree with Chipo's post. In

I agree with Chipo's post. In my answer of last week I sent links to a variety of other publications showing impact of Open Data for agriculture and nutrition. All of them show positive impact. I have not heard of a single example of damages of Open Data for agriculture and nutrition. There are few negative impacts in other sectors, when realted to personally identifiable information that is not anonymized. But since most Open Data is not personal, this has not been a big issue.

 

I am nt an expert in ICT, so I prefer not to commetn on that.

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all that glitters..

Dear all,
let me try to break the ice by playing the devil's advocate role and focus on the negative side of open/big data.

In a world of power asymmetries it is rather obvious that the strongest/richest organizations are going to benefit first and foremost of open datasets. Technology - every technology- has historically been uptaken by the elite first, so I don't see how this could be different with data. :)

On one hand this means that big companies would be able to create services out of data through which better monitor crop production (and related dynamics) to gain market insights that may strenghten their bargaining position with smallholders when it comes to buying their produce. 

On the other hand, there are already organizations proposing to farmers to share their data in exchange of services. Data can thus become a bargaining chip for farmers to receive some forms of technical advice/assistance or to access to credit/markets. This is the case of NGO like this one or companies like GroVentures and FitUganda.

I think we will see this kind of business models mushrooming over and over in the future. The question is how do we help governments regulate this environment and how do we strengthen (smallholder) farmers' capacities in order to be able to better leverage this asset. Personally I am particularly interested to learn more by the experience of some farmers' organizations (such as the East African Farmers Organization's eGranary project) in managing their own data could be the best way forward.

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All that glitters

Dear Simone,

I fully agree with your comment. It generally takes some time to learn about the dark side of new technologies and to mitigate that.

I just like to point at some other GODAN resources that have done some more groundbreaking work in this field

However the fact that some serious privacy, assymmatry and rights risks need to mitigated, it has never halted innovation. Let's make open data work!

 

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Dear Andre,

Dear Andre,
happy my comments resonate with you!
I also agree with you when you say that innovation goes forward.. no matter what. As the saying goes: instead of wondering why it rains let's pick up an umbrella and let's get ready for it. :)
s.
 

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Governments aiming tor realize impact with Open Data

Directly after this eAgriculture forum discussion I will present some use case of governments aiming to enforce their agricultural policies with Open Data.

This will start at the 10th of July with a webinar.

Please join at: http://www.e-agriculture.org/forums/discussions/e-forum-discussion-agriculture-open-data-package-agpackinfo

We are looking forward to your views and experiences.

As a preview: Did you get the right data from your government? How did you do that? Or why did you not succeed?

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The State and Open Data

The Indian Central and State Governments have initiated several platforms using ICTS to provide agricultural information, largely to farmers. These initaitives are supposedly "open". Farmers are supposed to get land records, soil health status, market price data and package of practices for common crops online. As I wade through these, I realise that many of these initiatives in reality mean little to the farmer (smallholder) they are aimed to support. For example, land records are not with useful geospatial data and are not linked to soil health status. The approach to sampling and testing soils, interpreting them and offering advice leaves much to be answered and what I hear from the field indicates that there are many problems in this initaitve. The E-NAM prices are from wholesale markets and for bulk commodities, not what smallholder produce. It is easier for a farmer to call a friend/agent in his nearest market that use E-NAM information. There are problems of access to data, interoperability, trustworthiness and timeliness. And none answer the questions of what to grow, when to grow, where to market, how to grow, where to market and how to market that farmers ask?

There exists two types of private sector initiatives to use this data in India. One is by large, corporate ICT service organisations who are well funded and whose business at the moment is around  the large tenders the Indian Central and State Governments have for offering ICT services to mainly farmers and in a very limited way the larger agricultural sector. There is also a much smaller "stratup" sector, made largely of some technocrats who work hard to make it considering the many opportunities they think exists in ICT applications in agriculture. Both these types of initatives are really not able to develop useful information either for the Government, public sector agencies, the private sector or farmers. The core issue is of the availability and accuracy of primary data. Acquiring this data is extermely costly (which no organisation other than the Government can really afford) and present data collection and collation systems are still in the hand written register mode of collection and management. Further there are always questions of its reliability and of course they are not current, primarily because of the data management methods used. The small startups have very little financial resources compared to the needs for what they aim to achieve. An ecology for public-private sector partnership for these startups has not been created. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research and the State Agricultural Universities hardly have the capacities (in spite of all the incubators they have developed though none in ICT applications) needed to partner PPPs. Thus "open data" even if well intended through policy statements need much more to be useful.  

Making an ecosystem to use open data and offer value added useful services in agriculture and farming, especially for small startups who are the most innovative, needs many more things. They need clear policies (I am still confused whether I can use a UAV/Drone for farm monitoring in India), funding mechanisms, accessible and affordable data that is timely and trustworthy, regulations nad regulatory mechanisms (for example I get more than 20 phone calls and an equal number of SMSs regarding financial, insurance and health products I do not need on my phone because someone leaks or sells my private mobile phone number to these organisation and I am helpless to stop them even after writing to TRAI, the regulatory agenct to deal with spam), support from public sector research and extensin organisations etc.

Ajit

Ajit Maru, Ahmedabad, India

 

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Government Succes

Dear Ajit,

Thank you for sharing this insights from India. I am curious to the exact references, if you can share those.

I often refer to http://agmarknet.gov.in/ a site also intended to share price and market information with small holder farmers in a attempt to break the power of the middle man, raising price and market acces for farmers, loweing inconsumer prices.

I know the sight not always run smooth  however I always wonder how it is perceived by the end users in India. How do you see this? (For more background: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1H2JSri0Yx4YyiIFNj8ZbxSeQcbqbSsSGOR6udwPngg0/edit?usp=sharing (Deskstudy)

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AgMarknet

Look at it this way. For a smallholder farmer, marketing starts with his/her local market and not with the national market. This usually is at the nearest (small) town where the produce is sold to a market intermediary who then sells in larger mandis markets (In India there are between 7-14 market intermediairies between farmer and consumer).  The prices indicated in most such applications are 1. Not farm gate purchase price 2. For very large markets/mandis 3. For bulk (though price may be mentioned in quintals purchase in in tonnes. 4. The price is usually dated by minimum of 2-3 days (a significant time gap for change in prices). Further, this is not the guaranteed/regulated price. Even the Government agencies are known not to purchase the produce at Minimum Support Price. Recently, there were newspaper reports of onions in Madhya Pradesh (which had a well publicised farmer agitation) which were not purchased by Government agencies even after Government announcements. However all these are "academic" reasons/results. Farmers in India will usually call a friend/market intermediary on a cell phone (very widespread in use) to find the price and settle the sale/purchase at the farm gate price. In theory all these initatives are very interesting but in real practice, useless.

Also trying to get historical data from the Agmarknet or any government agency is to say the least "difficult". Recently I wanted data for making a sample cadastral map of farmers land holdings in a district in Gujarat. I was told that a seperate application for every village (600 in the district) will be required!

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Thoughts on potential damages

Thanks to the organizers and moderators of this discussion for asking such an important question.  As a community, we tend to focus on what works in isolation of what does not, when in reality there is a lot to learn from open data failures.  The last week’s topics have unpacked the potential benefits of ICTs for open data in agriculture and nutrition so I would like to focus on a potential damage.  

Thought to ponder-

 The first thing that comes to mind is the sustainability of ICTs in agriculture and nutrition.  I don't have any specific examples of this (if you do please share), however, I fear some of these projects are developed with the best of intentions yet dissipate with time due to lack of funding, poor/changing infrastructure, or social/cultural/governmental changes leaving a community that may have become dependent on this information now without it.  Beyond being unfair, this could reduce trust between famers and data service providers, prolonging the process to reach future positive impacts.  Especially if these famers were providing their data, which leads into another potential damage- exploitation.  As another contributor mentioned above, without proper regulation of data services, smallholder farmers face the risk of being exploited for their data.  In conclusion, ICTs have great potential to benefit smallholder framers in developing countries but only when the long-term sustainability of their services are taken into account.  The open data principle or goal of 'equal impact' needs to exist temporally and spatially.  

 

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Collaborative Approach Required

I think ICT  through collaborative approach Open Data has enhance efficiency among stakeholders to provide basic informations to the public.

In Nigeria, government policies are being digitalized to bring about needed information that provide support and needs of the farming families, for example edah.edostate.gov.ng and citizensofnigeria.org are two unique approaches; currently, supporting the good use of ICT.

More awareness and strategies to reach out to the underserved are required with increase content, since those with expert knowledge and technological resources are in short supply.

Once a platform is designed that can be universally applicable and enduring, then we can deliver real-world “business benefit” by focusing on workflow automation – to reduce burden; this shall overcome any obstacle to data sharing which is widespread in many jurisdictions – the reluctance to share low-level data without the associated assessment narrative.

It shall be important to address the knowledge challenges associated with establishing an indicator-based reporting process by providing a Shared Knowledgebase (SK) - so that stakeholders or countries can share relevant report templates and indicator definitions with a more public audience from grassroot upward.

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Potential benefits of ICT and Open Data - the Case of ASAL Kenya

Development of an Open Data Knowledge Management Framework Using Information and Communication Technology: The case of Arid and Semi-arid Land - Agricultural Productivity Research Project in Kenya

The past decades have witnessed an increased growth in the use of information and communications technology (ICT) as a mechanism for improving the management of agricultural research knowledge. However, the management of agricultural research knowledge continue to face enormous challenges especially in Arid and Semi-arid Lands (ASAL) areas. This is because open data, open access and use of ICT in agricultural research field has remained low. It is therefore clear that ICT plays an essential role in agricultural research sphere as an innovation as well as an intervention. The empirical data further serves to support argumentation for supporting open data in nutrition and agriculture as an essential factor in research collaboration, learning and training among the stakeholders. It is evidenced that ASAL research knowledge and information are not well organized and structured in a suitable formats to support ease of access and utilization by the intended beneficiaries. In this regard, careful selection and development of ICT based systems, tools and processes for sourcing, storage, sharing and dissemination of information and knowledge in an open manner is considered a suitable innovation and intervention.

ICT and Open Data Perspective in Agricultural Research the case ASAL areas in Kenya

A large of body of theoretical and empirical literature assert that ICT plays a critical role in the management of agricultural research knowledge such as improved access and sharing of knowledge and information products and services. Likewise, the research attention given to ICT in Agricultural Research for Development (AR4D) is a testament to its potential role and impact on improving agricultural productivity, economic growth and poverty reduction. However, agricultural research scientists in ASAL-APRP have cynical perception on sharing of data through ICT tools and systems, as a result this has led to unexplored opportunities and resources. By and large in ASAL areas, the access, availability and management of agricultural research knowledge and information is “unsystematic”, and this has partly contributed to declining agricultural potential and food crises. Specifically in ASAL-APRP it has been reported that “despite the availability of various knowledge channels, most farmers do not have access to information on good agricultural practices (GAP)”. This low perspective of ICT and open data approaches  contributes to the project’s inability to effectively meet the diverse demand for research technologies for the different actors in ASA mainly farmers. Similarly, there are inherent complexities, difficulties and resistant from scientists in the use of ICT tools and systems as well as open data strategies in the management of research knowledge and information. This is mainly due to “the fear of unknown” with regard to data security and intellectual property rights (IPR). Other challenges include systematic organization of the data, information and knowledge to meet specific purposes. This is because farmers need information on a variety of subjects and at multiple stages from pre-production to post-harvesting. Similarly they have different types of information needs during each stage of the process for instance information on weather, pests and diseases, inputs, improved farming practices and markets among others. The persistency of these challenges is because the role, value and effectiveness of ICT and open data in supporting the management of agricultural research data, information and knowledge is sometimes dismissed and unexplored by agricultural research stakeholders. In the case of ASAL-APRP agricultural data, information and knowledge is scattered and stored in different forms mostly in hard copies and personal computers. This condition is possibly caused by low utilization of ICT and impoverished understanding of ICT and open data opportunities and value. In this case the developed “a Knowledge Management Framework” using ICT and open data principles for this project has provided real benefits and potentials to farmers and stakeholders in ASAL areas. The framework known ASAL-Knowledge Hub embraced ICT and open data has been instrumental in consolidating, managing and making available agricultural research data, information and knowledge for different stakeholders mostly the small holder farmers. The case of ASAL Knowledge-Hub as an open data platform is a testament in facilitation of equitable access to data, information and knowledge by different actors in the agricultural sector within the ASAL areas. The platform included innovative approaches including the development of mobile application which have been made available openly.

The case of ASAL Knowledge hub provides evidence to the fact that ICT and open data plays a significant role in AR4D particularly in the development of virtual open platforms such as “the ASAL knowledge hub”. The findings has produced new insights in the management of agricultural research data, information and knowledge. Moreover, as result of reflexivity using the privilege of empirical data, the concept of developing ASAL knowledge hub as the “artifact” was pivotal to the achievements of ASAL-APRP project vision of establishing a “Centre of Excellence” for agricultural research data, information and knowledge access, sharing and utilization ASAL.  In addition, the platform has meet the postulated requirements of a suitable interventions for achieving equitable access and utilization of agricultural research data, information and knowledge for ASAL areas and beyond. The empirical evidence further serves to support argumentation for ICT and Open data as key in supporting research collaboration, learning and training among the stakeholders. In this regard, careful selection and deployment of ICT systems, tools, techniques, and processes for sourcing, storing, sharing and dissemination of agricultural research data, information and knowledge is paramount. Furthermore, ASAL K-Hub an open data interactive platform has proved that allowing for inquiries and feedback can benefit demand driven research agenda. Additionally, it can inform practice and policy makers on critical research themes ultimately addressing the needs of small holder farmers.

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AN EASY PLANT DISEASE DIAGNOSTIC & MONITORING TOOL

http://plantix.net/

Plantix is a plant diagnostic App developed by PEAT. The App provides users worldwide with customized information concerning best practices, information on preventive measures and independent options for action. Plantix offers the possibility to send pictures of affected plants directly via smartphone and guides through an identification process to determine the plant disease in a very simple manner. All pictures sent via the App are tagged with coordinates.

The resulting metadata provides valuable insights into the spatial distribution of cultivated crops and most significant plant diseases e.g. in form of high resolution maps. Furthermore Plantix aim to get a deeper understanding of the relations between plant diseases and geofactors by the intersection of the gathered information.

Institutions and policy makers may be supplied with this regionalized real time geodata addressing the spread of diseases and prognosis of crop shortfalls, allowing for fast and targeted policy intervention. Additionally, our tool can be used as an innovative solution for direct communication with small farmers through Push-Messages.

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ICT & Open Data Can Reinforce Inequalities

I think there are many examples out there where open data and ICTs have negative impact on vulnerable populations. We just don't hear about them as much as we should. I sometimes wonder if this is because of the incentive structures that exist within the sector. A lot of this work is still predominantly donor-funded and program managers are fairly reticent to admit failure due to perceived negative impact on their careers/KPIs/end-of-year evaluations. This contributes to the broader political economy of data resulting in uneven progress, disenfranchisement of the vulnerable and a faulty narrative on impacts where claims are unfounded and causal chains non-existent. Open data, at some point, may result in the reconfiguration of the balance of power which would invariably trigger push-back from those rent seekers exploiting the status quo. It is naive to imagine those only exist in the public sector and not in the development sector (including funders). 

Having said that, there are examples that offer lessons we should all learn from. The key lesson, for purposes of this discussion, is not to pursue open data initiatives that are abstracted from the developmental agenda and the broader human rights framework. When little effort is made to connect open data and ICT initiatives to the core development goals we should be pursuing, we end up with projects/programs that reinforce inequalities and protect the current balance of power. It becomes about empowering the empowered.

A well-documented example of the impact of empowering the empowered is found in the 2007 paper Bhoomi: ‘E-Governance’, Or, An Anti-Politics Machine Necessary to Globalize Bangalore? by Dr. Solomon Benjamin and colleagues. Because those who could access the ICT platforms that held data on titles/land tenure were educated, mostly urban and able to access legal and financial resources, they translated this access into dispossession of land from rural farmers who didn't have the access, resources or education. A well-intentioned e-government program became a source of great misery for many in Bangalore.

Early on in countries where public procurement moved towards e-procurement and reduced or eliminated publishing of tenders in print media, those without the digital skills or access to utilize the online platforms were left at the mercy of intermediaries or missed out completely. The platforms didn't make things better except improve administrative efficiencies for the public sector. Other factors that affect access to e-services or public procurement such as access to credit, land tenure or gender equality were not addressed. Anecdotally, access to these opportunities simply mirrored existing inequalities where women and young people have less access to economic empowerment opportunities than men.

If an open data initiative serves to ensure people continue to be left behind, it causes damage rather than bring benefits to citizens.

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RE: ICT & Open Data Can Reinforce Inequalities

Dear Dr. Muchiri,

I totally agree with you.

The case of inequality has being a great challenge from time as a result of quest for supremacy.

My question based on the daily changes that occur, what can be done to reduce inequality? Even with free education many seem to follow their thought without leveraging on the importance of education. What choices do we provide the so called oppressed as they often seem not to understand the choices they make? What approach should developmental partners apply for a paradigm shift from the way they look at their developmental priorities? How can Open Data help in reconciling this great divide as technology is moving the World faster than the speed of light?

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Dear Dr. Muchiri,

Dear Dr. Muchiri,

I totally agree with you, many government agents and coordinators don't want to make known their weekness by sharing the required information for political reasons and in some cases don't have the reason because of poor structures put into place to manage the use of the resources at hand and in other cases embezzelment most especially in the develooping countries where some of this coordinators are appointed politically rather than by marrit

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ICT and Open Data

I feel honored to have been among the authors of this group, Open data can help  to educate  many farmers through ICT just i can say "reaching Unrechables " there are many challenges when we deal with  Open Data.

When we deal with ICT applications here are some problems are  access to data, interoperability, trustworthiness and timeliness. And none answer the questions of what to grow, when to grow, where to market, how to grow, where to market and how to market.

Dear Muchiri  When we deal with Digital data their are many threats to the data  like accidental damages, intensional, UnIntentional, virus threats many so we need to always take care of the data with various techonologies

 

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ICT and open data

Open data helps in improving agriculture production and food security eventually , but the agricultural stake holders like business man or entrepreneurs are the ones who are benefited much than the famers who remain in the fringes of the global technology hub. Scientific community are also benefited, open data enables them to carry out research at faster phase and foster the needs of farmers at right time. One more problem farmers are facing with open data and ICTs is that they are confused with huge data that is available on internet .All the open data have to be more streamlined and put in simpler format that a common man can use and get benefited. We can say that total justice is done to ICTs and open data only if it reaches the grassroots.

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Where is the useful open data for smallholder farmers?

I have been anticipating that some examples of open data that is useful for and is used by smallholder farmers in developing countries would be given in this forum.  Is it too early to go beyond opinions based on theoretical perceptions since there are no examples based on actual practice?

I am working on a project that intends to provide individual smallholder farmers decision support for their farms as also a single window for agribusiness, agriprocessors and agriservices that farmers need around  finance, commodity and information.  Apparently data from such a system has commercial value.

My main problem at the moment is to develop an appropriate (balanced) agreement in opening (and using) data for use among all actors and stakeholders from the project which has to be self-sustaining in about 3 years. I am slowly coming to a conclusion that generation and managing all data from the project will have to be considered as a "public" service just like any other service such as roads, water, electricity, health or education. Based on this assumption, users will pay a "toll" or a fee (based on use, its scale etc) to use the data even if the data is "open". Farmers may be subsidized  (like fertiliser or electricity they use). Thus while all data will be "open"it will not be "free".  Then an agreement is possible. I would be very happy to hear opinions on this issue.

 

 

 

PDey's picture
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STCR App developed for plant nutrient application

ICAR sponsored AICRP (STCR) developed a bilingual (Marathi and English) App for plant nutrient application through targeted yield approach. The App helps to arrive at decision on plant nutrient application rates based yield target set according to resource endowment capacity of the farmers.

amaru's picture
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Details of the App

Dear Dr. Dey:

Please provide where and how the app you mention can be downloaded/used online.

thembani.malapela's picture
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Re

Dear Participants,

Many thanks for the wonderful comments, we will let the forum run for 1 week more so that we can give all the chance to express themselves in the three aspects of the questions.

We salute your comments and wish for the best

Thembani Malapela, On behalf of the e-forum on ICT and Open Data 

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